How Red and Near Infrared Light Stimulates Cellular Respiration and Boost Energy Production

Natural light powers almost all life on earth, and while this is pretty clearly understood as it relates to plants, what’s perhaps not as well known is that mammals, and more specifically humans are no exception. While plants utilize photosynthesis and chloroplast to convert light energy into the chemical energy known as adenosine triphophate (ATP), our own bodies create this same energy in the mitochondria of our cells in a process called cellular respiration, a process in which red and near infrared (NIR) light play a significant role.

Red and NIR light include a specific range of wavelengths within the natural light spectrum that have been studied extensively and found to be incredibly beneficial at the cellular level (at the correct dose, wave length and intensity), leading to increased ATP production and producing numerous clinically-proven benefits including but certainly not limited to the reduction of fatigue, pain and inflammation, skin rejuvenation, and muscle recovery.[1]

This article provides a summary of the energy-producing cellular respiration process, and explains the fascinating role red and NIR light play in enhancing it at the intra-cellular level. The story of energy, red light, and cellular respiration begins in our mitochondria.

What are Mitochondria?

Mitochondria are double-membrane structures in our cells and the tiny factories that convert food and oxygen into energy. Simply put, the mitochondria are the energy producing units of our cells. Improving mitochondrial function will improve the overall health of your body.

They are responsible for cell signaling, cellular differentiation and metabolism, steroid synthesis, hormone signaling, programmed cell death (apoptosis), and cellular energy.[2] If you think back to high school biology you may recall that mitochondria are referred to as the “powerhouses of the cell”. They’re often described in this way because they facilitate the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), usually referred to as the “energy currency of life”.

Mitochondria are unique, with their own ribosomes and DNA. They’re typically round or oval in shape and range from .5-10 microns in size, so we can’t physically see them, but they affect everything we do. The number of mitochondria in a cell can vary widely for instance, red blood cells have no mitochondria, where as liver cells can have more than 2000, it all depends on the energy needed for that cell to function.[3][4] For example they are found in the greatest concentrations in tissues such as the muscle, heart and the brain.

* TIP For more on the mitochondria read Optimal Wellness, Part 4: Energy, Mitochondria and Toxicity

What is Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)?

ATP is a high-energy molecule whose sole function is to create and store energy in living cells. It provides the constant supply of energy our bodies use it to do pretty much everything. Some cells (like heart, brain and muscle cells) require significantly more ATP than others due to the intense demands placed upon them. Interestingly, humans recycle the equivalent of our own body weight in ATP every single day.[5]

How is ATP Created?

ATP is created using cellular respiration, one of the leanest and most efficient metabolic pathways on earth. This process involves using several key ingredients: the oxygen we breathe, the water we drink, and the food we eat, to produce ATP, the fuel for life.

Interestly, in humans we produce ATP (along with carbon dioxide and water) from glucose and oxygen through the cellular respiration using mitochondria. In plants ATP is produced (along with oxygen and glucose) from carbon dioxide and water through photosynthesis using chloroplast in light dependent reactions. The constituents are the same, the difference is plants use chloroplast while animals use mitochondria yet the availability of light energy impacts the total quantity of ATP produced.

Before we get microscopic and explain cellular respiration, we need to quickly touch on a few concepts, since not everyone is likely to remember their high school science classes on mitochondria and the Krebs Cycle.

Here’s your cheat sheet:

  • Charge: Electrons (-) and protons (+) are the charges of life as we know it. Everything that exists in our universe operates using a negative and positive charge. When a compound sheds electrons, it’s called oxidation. When it gains electrons, it’s called reduction (because more electrons means more negative charge).
  • Coenzymes: The cargo trucks of cell respiration, these small molecular compounds transport protons and electrons into the mitochondria. Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) & Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) are the two crucial coenzyme carriers in cellular respiration.
  • Hydrogen: Sometimes even the most abundant chemical substance in the universe needs an introduction. Hydrogen ions (H+) have a positive charge and play a key role in cellular respiration. When NAD+ or FAD pick up electrons, they also pick up H+ ions, which converts them into a reduced state, resulting in NADH or FADH2 (also coenzymes). Your key takeaway on hydrogen should be that it’s needed to complete the 4-stage process of cellular respiration; without it, we can’t make ATP.

 

4 Stages of Cellular Respiration

ATP can be created two ways, aerobic (with oxygen) or anaerobic (without oxygen), but aerobic is much more common and beneficial, because it produces more energy.[6] Aerobic cellular respiration has four stages. In the first two stages, our bodies strip nutrients from our food, turning them into usable fuel in the form of carbon compounds.

  1. Glycolysis: The basic metabolic pathway in all organisms where food is broken down into chemical compounds called pyruvate.[6]
  1. Pyruvate Oxidation: Pyruvate is broken down (oxidized) into Acetyl CoA. Remember, when anything is oxidized, it means that it loses its electrons. Those electrons are picked up by NAD+, which grabs a hydrogen ion and forms NADH.  Carbon dioxide is generated as waste and we are off to stage 3.[7]

In steps 3 & 4, the aforementioned carbon compounds are converted into the vast majority of energy used by aerobic cells (over 95% of cell energy in humans is produced through this process).

  1. Citric Acid Cycle: This is the vital metabolic core process of the cell. The main function of the citric acid cycle is oxidation, where high-energy electrons and protons are harvested from the carbon compound (acetyl-CoA) created during the previous stage. This creates electron and proton carriers (coenzymes) called NADH and FADH2. Electrons and protons have to be oxidized into these individual coenzyme units to create ATP during the final stage of cellular respiration. This is a highly efficient and important process because a limited number of molecules generate large amounts of NADH and FADH2.[8]
  1. Oxidative Phosphorylation: The process starts when electron carriers NADH and FADH2 unload electrons slowly into the electron transport chain (ETC), which creates energy. As electrons flow down the ETC, they meet up with oxygen to form water and CO2 as byproducts. At the same time, hydrogen ions (H+) are released as NADH & FADH2 are oxidized. H+ ions are then pumped upstream through protein complexes I, III, & IV into the intermembrane, where they build up. As they begin to gather, potential energy is created in the form of a gradient. Those ions then flow downstream through an enzyme called ATP synthase, where they re-enter the matrix as ATP molecules.

When cellular respiration is broken down to the atomic level, it becomes clear why it all boils down to electrons (e-) and protons (H+) for ATP production.[9]

How Does Red and NIR Light Enhance ATP Production?

Their short answer is: by breaking up the major roadblock to ATP and water production, which is harmful excess nitric oxide. During the creation of ATP synthase, nitric oxide competes with oxygen, which stops the eventual production of ATP. This also increases oxidative stress, which can lead to cellular death.[9] The photons in red and NIR light excite electrons, which helps break up nitric oxide bonds so H+ ions can move through the process more effectively, resulting in more ATP energy that powers your cells and your entire body.

The longer answer points to the water within the cell. Mitochondria are powered by an enzyme bound into their membranes, this mitchondrial rotary motor call ATP synthase spines like a molecular turbine. The principal function of the mitochondrial ATP synthase is the synthesis of ATP — the primary energy carrier in cells. The root cause of the synthesis is the translocation of protons, which are turning the rotor. The protons are driven across the inner membrane of mitochondria into the mitochondrial matrix by the energy of the proton gradient, the transmembrane proton-motive force. When the surface layers of water within the cells are exposed to red and infrared light, it increases the distance between each water molecule effectively thinning the water and reducing it’s viscosity allowing your mitochondria’s molecular turbine to spin more easily thereby increasing its efficiency and generating more ATP.[10]

Now that you have a better understanding for how energy is created at the cellular level, if you’re interested in going a little deeper into the science of red and near infrared light therapy, check out the article, How does red light therapy actually work?

Conclusion

The more efficiently your cells create ATP energy through cellular respiration, the better your body feels and performs. Red and NIR light stimulates mitochondria and works against nitric oxide & oxidative stress that weakens our cells and slows us down.

Now, with 21st century technology and science, it’s safe, effective, and affordable to harness the power of red and near infrared light in the comfort of your own home with a device like the Joovv. For more information on the many clinically-proven benefits of light therapy, make sure to stop by the learn page of our site, which is chalk-full of fun and educational articles and videos. See you there!

References:

[1] Hamblin M. “Mechanisms and Mitochondrial Redox Signaling in Photobiomodulation”  Photochemistry and Photobiology. 2018, 94:199-212. 2017 October 31. doi: 10.1111/php.12864

[2] McBride HM, Neuspiel M, Wasiak S. “Mitochondria: more than just a powerhouse”. Current Biology. 2006 July 16(14): R551–60. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2006.06.054.

[3] Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 1994

[4] Voet D, Voet JG, Pratt CW. Fundamentals of Biochemistry, 2nd Edition. 2006 pp. 547, 556.

[5]  Törnroth-Horsefield, S.; Neutze, R. “Opening and closing the metabolite gate”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2008 Dec 105 (50): 19565–19566. doi:10.1073/pnas.0810654106.

[6] Jones W, Bianchi K. “Aerobic Glycolysis: Beyond Proliferation”. Frontiers in Immunology. 2015; 6: 227.

[7]  Gray LR, Tompkins SC, Taylor EB. “Regulation of pyruvate metabolism and human disease”.  Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 2014; 71(14): 2577-2604. 2013 Dec 21. doi:10.1007/s00018-013-1539-2.

[8] Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. “Biochemistry”. 5th edition. New York: W H Freeman; 2002.

[9] Friedman JR, Nunnari J. “Mitochondrial form and function”. Nature. 2014 Jan 16; 505(7483):335-343. Doi: 10.1038/nature12985.

[10] Sommer, Andrei P. “Light Effect on Water Viscosity: Implication for ATP Biosynthesis”. Nature. 2015 Jul 8; 5/nature12029

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